Diabetes is one of the disease found among elders due to their low body movement, weight gaining, and uncontrolled diet; high fat and sugar.
Elders should consult doctors to have health checked for diabetes and other diseases. Diagnostic criteria for diabetes are
1. Plasma glucose test after fasted at least 8 hours. Diabetes describes when blood sugar level is over 126 ml. % after twice testing.
2. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) when the plasma glucose level before meals is under 126 ml. % by having venipuncture before and 2 hours after drinking 75 grams of glucose. Diabetes will be described if the result shows plasma glucose level at 2 hours over 200 ml.% The result between 140-199 ml.% signifies oral glucose tolerance impairment. The level at over 140 ml.% is normal.
3. Random plasma glucose level test without fasting at over 200 ml. % will describe diabetes. As the result has low accuracy, so if the level shows over 200 ml. %, The OGTT will be proceeded in severe diabetic patients who need an urgent treatment.
4. Glycosides over 6.5 describes diabetes
5. If the result shows HbA1c>6.5 twice but blood sugar level before meal is FBS<126 mg% or FBS>126 but HbA1c<6.5, both describes diabetes.
Apart from these methods, urine glucose test can also be conducted. However, it’s not popular and inaccurate. Blood glucose test will consider the medicines which boost sugar level.
In conclusion, the test result of the people who are at risk for diabetes are
– Sugar level after fasting between 100-125 mg/dl
– Sugar level after drinking 75 grams of glucose at 2 hours between 140-199 mg/dl
– Average sugar level between 5.7-6.4%
Although the diagnostic result will be difficult to understand but diabetes can be prevented by good self-care, avoid risk factors, regularly doing exercise, weight control, and avoid carbohydrate, sugar and fat.